More than 77 percent of Americans are deficient in one key nutrient: vitamin D [1]. But that’s not all. Many of us are imbalanced in vitamin A and vitamin K2. Alone or combined, these disparities can lead to serious health issues if not corrected.

And here’s the craziest part: getting the balance right of these three critical elements is not actually that hard—we’re just uninformed about how to do it.

So if you want to ensure healthy bones and teeth and a thriving body for many years to come, let’s dive into why each of these vitamins are so important and how we can bridge the best balance between them.

How to Balance Vitamins A, D, and K

It’s no enough to simply grab a multivitamin off the shelf containing these vitamins and call it a day. Your body needs the right balance of vitamins A, D, and K to prevent further problems. Here’s where you should land on each and how to get there.

Vitamin A: Too Much of a Good Thing

Here’s how to optimize your vitamin A supplementation: stop taking any.

Here’s why:

  • A review of seven high-quality clinical trials involving 131,727 people found mortality rates increase by 29 percent in people taking too much vitamin A.
  • Half of the sources of this too-much vitamin A was coming from multivitamins that contained it.
  • Vitamin A is an essential vitamin, and you do need some, but too much of it can actually hurt your health.

So, unless you’ve been told by a healthcare professional that you’re deficient in vitamin A, you do not need to supplement with it. That includes multivitamins that include vitamin A. (Because as we know, not all multivitamins are created equal).

Also, examine any other supplements you’re currently taking to ensure they don’t have added vitamin A. Stick with food for your vitamin A sources, which you’ll easily get from a well-balanced diet.

Vitamin D: You Probably Need More

As we mentioned above, more than ¾ of the U.S. population isn’t getting enough vitamin D! This is often despite taking multivitamins, drinking milk, and getting sun each day—and yet it’s still not enough.

This is a problem because vitamin D deficiency is linked to higher risks of:

  • Cancer
  • Dying from a stroke
  • Diabetes
  • Dementia
  • Multiple sclerosis

The National Cancer Institute also found that the further North you live, the more likely you are to be vitamin D deficient because you’re not getting as much from the sun.

Overall, people with higher vitamin D levels appear to have lower mortality rates than those with lower vitamin D levels.

And what’s the best way to know your vitamin D levels? Have your blood levels tested to see where you stand.

You should be between 35 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL. While vitamin D deficiency is extremely common, toxicity is (while possible) very rare and hard to achieve, especially in America and if you don’t have a job where you’re out in the sun all day.

For most people who are also eating healthy sources of vitamin D, we’ve found at least 2000 IU is sufficient.

And be sure to eat more natural sources of vitamin D like egg yolks, organic butter, liver, and supplementation. A little more sunlight can also help us.

And now, this is where vitamin K comes in.

Vitamin K2: Crucial Companion to Vitamin D

What is vitamin K2? Like vitamins A and D, it’s an important fat-soluble vitamin. And Vitamin K benefits are crucial. It’s needed for [2,3,4,5,6]:

  • Proper blood clotting
  • Bones to calcify properly
  • Preventing bone fractures and loss of bone strength
  • Protecting against atherosclerosis, heart disease, and even cancer risk
  • Proper neurological and cognitive function

Related: Vitamin D3 and K2 Benefits.

As with vitamin D, most people aren’t getting enough vitamin K2—and our bodies actually can’t store it very well. This is why the right supplementation is key.

What you need to know is that vitamin D is best absorbed when taken with vitamin K2. In fact, vitamin D and K2 are the perfect match! Vitamin K2 makes sure vitamin D is actually ends up in your bones.

And thankfully, there’s no known toxicity that comes from supplementing with vitamin K1 or K2.

The best way to get vitamin K2 in your diet is by eating vitamin K foods plus supplementing.

Good vitamin K2 foods include:

  • green leafy vegetables
  • fermented vegetables
  • organic butters and creams
  • egg yolks
  • aged cheeses
  • liver

An Easy Solution: Vitamin D & K Spray

Advanced D-K Spray makes it easy for kids and adults to get optimal amounts of both vitamin D and K2 without worrying about vitamin A (or other unnecessary extra vitamins) like you do with many multivitamins.

And also unlike many multivitamins and other supplements, our spray is safe for children as young as four years of age.

Plus, it’s easier to take than supplement pills—simply spray and go—and provides two of the most important nutrients for good health: vitamin D and K2. It absorbs rapidly and the nano-pure formulation is designed for maximum safe effectiveness.

Advanced D-K Spray ensures you and your family get the vitamin D and K2 needed for the healthy bones, teeth, bodies, brains, and disease prevention that come with a healthy diet and lifestyle. Try it for yourself today by clicking here.

Sources:

  1. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/414878
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16801507
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489224
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8642453
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19179058
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19027415

Afternoon tiredness is a monster many of us struggle with on a regular basis. The work day is going well, but then 2:00 or 3:00 hits and it can become a battle just to focus.  This article covers ways to combat afternoon lethargy and keep your energy levels more consistent throughout the day.

Snack Regularly
Physiologically afternoon lethargy has a lot to do with our cortisol levels. Cortisol is the hormone that tells our body when it’s time to wake up in the morning.  The levels of cortisol in our body fluctuate throughout the day, and when cortisol is low we feel more tired. One easy way to stay alert is to intersperse snacks between meals. There are many low calorie, healthy snacks to choose from. Here at CCL Supplements we are big fans of healthy protein bars (such as RX Bars, G2G Bars, Cliff Bars etc.), nuts, dried fruit, and guacamole.

This graph shows how cortisol levels change throughout the course of a day, and how snacks can help keep it high:

circadian-cortisol-sleep-hack.jpg 42.6 KB View full-size Download

Aim for 7-9 Hours of Quality Sleep
If you are an adult the amount of sleep recommended by the National Sleep Foundation is 7-9 hours.  Everyone’s body is slightly different and it is worth experimenting with different lengths of sleep to really dial in what feels best for you. For example, I have found that 7.5 hours per night is just about right for me. My wife on the other hand usually needs about 9.

Time is only one factor however.  The quality of sleep you get each night is just as important as how long you lie in bed. There are many factors that play into this such as temperature, light levels, white noise, quality of mattress, and pre-bed rituals, which you can learn about here.

Take the Right Supplements
One of the causes of our bodies tiring is lack of nutrients which are vital in our metabolic processes.  Glutathione is a good example of this.  This tripeptide chemical is one of our bodies’ waste eliminators. It is a natural antioxidant that gets rid of free radicals and toxins. Eliminating these toxins can help us feel more energetic and less sluggish.

Vitamin B12 is a coenzyme that participates in many biochemical pathways in our bodies.  When B12 levels are deficient, the production of red blood cells diminishes.  Not enough red blood cells leads to not enough oxygen being transported throughout our bodies, which leads to feeling fatigued and drained throughout the day.

And of course there is always the crowd favorite: caffeine. We of course recommend our pure caffeine inhaler to avoid unnecessary sugar, carbonation, and toxins.

Take Naps If Possible
Not everyone is able to take naps in the afternoon, (although Ben & Jerry’s, Zappos, Uber and Google have installed dedicated nap spaces in their headquarters, so it may be worth trying to convince your boss to install some lazyboys) but if your schedule allows it, the science has shown that a nap can do wonders for your mind and body.

The American Psychology Association has shown that naps help improve learning, ability to cope with frustrating situations, alertness, and more.  Some research even suggests that a 90 minute nap has similar benefits to an 8 hour night’s.

Notes & Sources
http://www.gestaltreality.com/2014/04/03/supercharge-your-health-by-sleeping-less/  [cortisol graph]
http://www.apa.org/monitor/2016/07-08/naps.aspx
https://sleepfoundation.org/press-release/national-sleep-foundation-recommends-new-sleep-times

Many of us associate Vitamin B12 with things like low energy levels, anemia, trouble sleeping, irritability, and depression. But we often don’t realize that vitamin B12 deficiency may also cause hair loss!😦

Vitamin B12 plays a role in many biological processes including the formation of red blood cells 💉 and cellular metabolism. Probably more important than these however is the crucial role it plays in DNA replication. It participates in several DNA-related biochemical pathways including stabilizing DNA, donating methyl groups, and ensuring that the DNA replicates properly.

Our hair grows as the follicles at the base of each strand replicate and push older follicle cells outwards. These older cells keratinize and end up looking like what you see on your head, arms legs etc. DNA replication is an essential part of cell replication, and if this process is stunted then cells will no longer be able to duplicate themselves. Since hair follicles are rapidly dividing cells, they are constantly in the process of replicating their DNA, but if there is not enough B12 present, then they won’t be able to do their thing and keep the hair growing. 👴

As our bodies age their ability to absorb vitamin B12 from our diet diminishes.  Although not the only cause of hair loss, this decrease in absorption does contribute to some people’s hair loss as they get older.

Hair loss is just one of the maladies supplementing vitamin B12 can help with.  To learn more about Vitamin B12 check out this article.

If you are or think you may be deficient in vitamin B12 we recommend checking out Advanced Vitamin B12 Spray!  It is formulated to be a convenient and effective way to get your body the Vitamin B12 it needs.

Resources:
1. https://www.frontiersin.org/10.3389/conf.fphar.2010.60.00140/event_abstract
2. https://www.hairlossrevolution.com/does-vitamin-b12-deficiency-cause-hair-loss/
3. https://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/hair-loss/science-hair#1

It is estimated that 75% of adults and teens are deficient in Vitamin D. 😲 Many may not see symptoms right away, but long term this deficiency can lead to bone, heart, blood pressure, and mood issues. So while supplementation is important for many of us, it is critical for others. 🤔

Recent studies have shown that some of the population have polymorphisms (an error in DNA) in the vitamin D biochemical pathway, which can cause symptoms, but also lead to premature death! Because Vitamin D is so crucial to our bodies (it is used in pathways which create about 4.6% of our proteins) those with this polymorphism are prone to dying early from several different causes. ☠ To find out if you have inherited, or are likely to pass on this polymorphism, we recommend taking the 23andMe DNA Test.

Because Vitamin D is a fat soluble hormone, those who are overweight often have deficient levels of Vitamin D in their blood stream as well. 🍩 The Vitamin D can get trapped in excess fat cells and not make it to other parts of the body where it is needed for its various functions.

In addition to this, those who maintain a Vitamin D blood level of 40-60 ng/ml (less than 30 ng/ml is considered inadequate) show lower rates of cancer,💀 cardiovascular disease, ❤ and stroke!🧠   Plus vitamin D helps aging 💁

These and other issues relating to Vitamin D are explained in a presentation by Dr. Rhonda Patrick in the video below (see minutes 5:46-12:36

Vitamin D’s efficacy is increased dramatically when coupled with Vitamin K. Hence the reason we paired them together in our Advanced Vitamin D & K Spray!  Learn more about how these two vitamins work synergistically together here:

One of the best ways to maintain healthy levels of Vitamin D is with our new Advanced Vitamin D & K Spray! Check it out here.

1. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/vitamin-d-deficiency-united-states/
2. See this post for more references of scientific studies: https://goodies.cclsupplements.com/vitamin-k2-and-vitamin-d3-benefits/[/wr_text][/wr_column][/wr_row]

Every day, your body is under attack. You can’t see them, but microscopic compounds are present that contribute to disease, aging, and instability in the body. These are known as free radicals, and in this article we’ll cover what they are, what they do, and how to get rid of them naturally.

What are Free Radicals: What You Need to Know

Basically, free radicals are unstable atoms. But to help you fully understand, let’s get into a little more detail.

Your body is made up of atoms. At all times, electrons are orbiting these atoms and form “shells.” Every shell must have a certain number of electrons to fill it.

When a shell is full, the atom is stable. But if an atom’s shell doesn’t have enough electrons nearby, it might bond with another atom and start sharing its electrons. This creates a free radical, which then becomes unstable and very reactive (in a bad way), stealing electrons from molecules around it.

When too many free radicals are present and causing damage, it’s called oxidative stress—and it’s a problem in a number of ways.

Dangers of Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage

Oxidative stress is harmful because it damage cells in your body. That damage shows up in the form of aging and various types of disease.

This information stems from what’s called the free radical theory of aging, which states aging is caused by free radicals damaging cells over time.

As your body ages over time, it loses it’s spunk for fighting off these free radicals. This leads to the buildup of more free radicals and more oxidative stress on the cells. The results of this aging along with disease-causing processes and damage.

Many studies on rats support this free radical theory of aging, showing free radicals increasing significantly with age [1].

Research suggests these free radicals that are made in the mitochondria, the “powerhouse” in your cells, where a few things happen:

  • The free radicals damage what is needed for the cell to properly work
  • The damage leads to mutations that create more free radicals
  • This speeds up the amount of damage to the cell

This chain reaction of free radical creation can break cell membranes and affect what gets in and out of the cell. The can lead to damaged molecules that mutate and form tumors or DNA code damage.

In addition, research has connected various health problems with oxidative stress from free radicals, including:

  • Aging-related appearance changes like gray hair, wrinkles, hair loss, and loss of skin elasticity
  • Cardiovascular, brain, nervous system, and blood sugar-related diseases and concerns [2]
  • Decreased immunity, autoimmune diseases, and disorders related to inflammation [3]
  • Vision decline related to aging
  • Headaches, fatigue, brain fog, and memory loss
  • And much more

Lifestyle Habits that Increase Free Radical Production

Free radicals are produced in the body, but certain lifestyle choices made outside the body can increase the generation of free radicals too:

  • Smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol
  • Consuming fried foods like fast food
  • Being exposed to air pollution or pesticides from GMO and non-organic foods and drinks

These lifestyle choices have also been shown to contribute to diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Going along with the free radical theory, it could be that oxidative stress is behind some of the reasons these things cause diseases.

In addition, substances that make free radicals are found in medicines, everyday foods, the air, and the water we drink.

In a nutshell, free radicals are a problem—and they’re unavoidable. But thankfully, there are substances in the body that can fight these damaging compounds too. Those are antioxidants.

How to Use Antioxidants to Eliminate Free Radicals from Your Body

Antioxidants are compounds known as “free radical scavengers” because they can react with free radicals and neutralize them or reduce their creation.

One way antioxidants can do this is by donating an electron to a free radical before it’s able to bond and become unstable. This can stabilize the free radical and keep it from oxidizing and becoming toxic to the cells.

By consuming more antioxidants like Advanced Glutathione, you can help increase the fight against free radicals.

How to Get More Antioxidants

There are many ways to get more antioxidants. Certain foods are rich in them, including:

  • Vitamin C in citrus fruits and berries
  • Beta carotene in carrots, squash, spinach, kale, and sweet potatoes
  • Phytoestrogens in meat substitutes and soybeans

Other antioxidant sources include supplements like vitamin C, vitamin E, lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, phenols, polyphenols, and the powerful glutathione.

CCL Advanced Glutathione Extra Strength was created as a way to fast-track the power of antioxidants into your body. It’s now easy to get a daily dose of the glutathione antioxidant (increasing your levels by 10% within hours) without worrying about pills or injections. The bottle will even fit easily in your purse, pocket, or wallet!

If you have symptoms of or lifestyle habits that promote free radical damage—like being sick often or chronically, lack of exercise, poor diet history, taking prescription medications, or feeling fatigued or irritable all the time—glutathione can help you feel your best while working its magic in your cells.

Learn more about Advanced Glutathione and order your own bottle here.

 

Sources:

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0047637487900571?via%3Dihub
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7785961
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3614697/
bedtime routine ideas for better sleep

Having trouble getting to sleep at a good time—or not getting enough good-quality sleep? Whether you toss and turn, can’t seem to wind down for bed, or feel tired all throughout the day, having a good bedtime routine can make all the difference.

This article will cover some of the best bedtime routine ideas—from calming activities to sleep supplements—for the deeper, better sleep your body and mind need to be healthy and functional.

Why Have a Bedtime Routine?

Creating a bedtime routine might seem like one more thing to worry about, but really, it’s all about making things easier for you. If you struggle with getting enough sleep each night or never feel rested enough, it’s likely taking a toll on your mental and physical health—even if you don’t notice it.

Our bodies need good sleep to function correctly. So if you’re not currently getting that, you need something to help. That’s what a bedtime routine can do: help you relax and get ready for true rest.

Here are just a few reasons to create a nighttime routine:

  • You can calm your mind and let go of any of the day’s worries keeping you up.
  • You’ll create a habit for your mind and body that tells it when it’s time for rest and slumber.
  • You’ll become more mindful of what you currently do before bed and how certain activities might contribute to poor sleep.

Now, let’s look at some of the best bedtime routine ideas that you can try as early as tonight.

1. Brain Dump Your Thoughts and Worries

A common reason for poor sleep is an overactive mind. If you have a lot of worries, it can be hard to turn off troublesome thoughts for the evening. So, try “letting them go” on paper.

Research shows writing can benefit your physical and mental health, so grab a cheap journal and spend a few minutes writing about what’s on your mind. It doesn’t have to be well-written or even make sense to anyone else—because you’re the only one who will see it!

This is your chance to get your thoughts or worries onto the page and out of an anxious loop in your head. Just start writing and see what comes up.

P.S. This activity is good for not only preparing for sleep but also freeing up your mind for fresh ideas the next day.

2. Choose a Relaxing Activity You Love

It’s hard to jump right into sleep if you’re not feeling calm and relaxed. So make sure any activities right before bedtime are conducive to the setting.

Think about stuff you like to do that calms you down.

Plus, setting aside this time (ideally at least 30 minutes) ensures your day includes something you enjoy. Many of us are so focused on work or other responsibilities that we spend all day on activities we wouldn’t necessarily choose to do.

But it’s good to have those little things to look forward to!

Here are some ideas, but feel free to do whatever relaxes you the most:

  • Read a book (many people fall asleep when trying to read, so use it to your advantage).
  • Listen to calming music.
  • Watch an episode of your favorite show.
  • Write in a journal about what matters most to you in life.
  • Take a bath or shower.
  • Spend some time calmly talking with your partner or family members about your day or anything else on your mind.
  • Talk on the phone with a loved one.
  • Do any of these activities with a warm cup of herbal tea or other non-caffeinated drink you enjoy.

Give your mind some time for the enjoyment and rest it deserves away from all the hustle and bustle of the day.

3. Try a Sleep Supplement Like Melatonin

There are all sorts of supplements out there to help you sleep. Finding the right one for you can work wonders, and melatonin is a great place to start.

Melatonin is a natural hormone your body produces to help you fall asleep. For almost three decades, people have been using melatonin as a supplement to reset their internal body clocks and get better sleep.

You can get it in tablet, pill, liquid, and powder forms. But the most efficient way to take melatonin is by inhaling it.

CCL Sleep is a natural inhaled melatonin sleep aid that starts working in just 30 seconds (as opposed to waiting 20-30 minutes for another form to kick in). You can use it anytime you need to feel sleepy and wind down—whether that’s at home, in a hotel, or on a plane. Try it here.

4. Refrain From Work or Electronics Before Bed

This is the hardest one for most people.

Being a workaholic (checking emails, finishing some work here and there, etc), hanging out on social media, or playing any type of electronic games before bed can wreck your sleep in a number of ways:

  • It stimulates your brain and messes with your internal body clock, making it hard to wind down, fall asleep, and wake up rested.
  • It’s easy to get caught in the flow and before you know it, it’s 1am and you only have a few hours left to sleep.
  • They can be addictive, making it hard to turn them off at a decent time—planning to just check something for few minutes can easily turn into hours.
  • Working right before bed just causes extra stress and worry, which are the last emotions you want to feel right before sleeping.

At least one hour before bed, stop using all electronics—including your computer, tablet, and smartphone—and stop any work. That includes not scrolling through Facebook or Instagram once you’re in bed.

Try to make the hour before bed your time to not worry, work, or stress. Your mind needs rest just like the rest of your body.

If you have trouble justifying rest time, remember that it’s good for your health and will actually make you less overwhelmed and more productive the next day.

5. Stop Caffeine, Alcohol, and Food at the Right Times

Consider the fact that what you consume during the day could be causing sleep issues. Here are some tips:

  • Have your last cup of coffee, energy drink, or any other caffeine energy booster you use during the day at least six hours before you plan to go to bed.
  • Avoid alcoholic drinks at least three hours before bedtime. (While alcohol can help you get to sleep faster, it reduces rapid eye movement—REM—sleep, the restorative stage of sleep. Less REM sleep can lead to poor concentration, daytime sleepiness, and poor quality sleep.)
  • Try to finish dinner 2-3 hours before bedtime. While some experts say there’s no problem with eating before bed, if you’re someone who struggles with sleep, your body might have trouble resting while it digests. Try it to see if it makes a difference in your sleep quality.

Replace any normal drinks with something alcohol- and caffeine-free, like chamomile tea, and see how much of a difference it can make.

6. Do Some Nighttime Yoga or Meditation

This comes back to soothing your mind and body before bed. Following a specific meditation or gentle yoga routine can help you get into a more calming state of mind.

Look up guided meditations or bedtime yoga flows online (YouTube especially is great for free yoga classes) that you can do right before bed. It might be just what you need to pacify and ground yourself for slumber.

If you’re religious or spiritual, saying a prayer or mantra before bed can help too.

7. Prep the Lights and Temperature for Sleep

Make sure your environment is set up for optimal sleep in the evening.

Most people sleep best when the room is a little cooler, so try turning down the thermostat more as you’re preparing for bed.

The ideal bedroom temperature for sleeping is somewhere between 65 and 72 degrees Fahrenheit, so play around with what works best for you. If this isn’t possible or you live in a really hot climate, maybe invest in a bed fan or mattress pad that helps cool you down.

If you air feels stuffy, you might try opening the windows for a while too.

Consider the lighting, too. At least an hour before bed, turn down the lights in your bedroom to help signal to your body that it’s nighttime and you’re ready for rest.

You might even try speaking quietly and just overall promoting a sense of quiet and calm.

What If You Still Can’t Sleep?

If you try each bedtime routine above and still have trouble falling asleep, remember that it can take time to develop a habit and get your body used to it. Try your new routines for at least a week, then adjust until you find the right bedtime routine for you.

But also, if it’s still taking more than 20-30 for you to fall asleep, it might be that you’re just not ready for sleep yet. Try repeating one of your routines (while always keeping the lights dim) then trying to go back to bed after about 15-20 minutes.

Sometimes good sleep can seem impossible in our crazy busy world, but it’s never out of reach completely. All it takes is a little schedule adjustment to find a routine that works for you. Be patient, be kind to yourself, and know that pursuing better sleep is the ultimate way to make life more manageable.

To supplement your new routine, try CCL Sleep inhaler to help mimize racing thoughts, insomnia, and any other troubles you have falling asleep.

Around 90% of Americans have some form of caffeine every single day [1]. But most people don’t know why that cup of coffee gets them going in the morning or how that energy drink makes it easier to power through work or school.

So, how does the most widely used psychoactive drug increases alertness and make you feel more awake? To answer that, we must take a trip under your skull (metaphorically, of course) to look at the effects of caffeine on the brain.

That trip begins with caffeine and a compound known as adenosine.

Adenosine: The Relaxation Molecule

Adenosine is a brain molecule that attaches to a brain receptor—called the A1 receptor—and promotes sleepiness and muscle relaxation.

Adenosine can also bind to another receptor—the A2A receptor—interfering with the release of dopamine (the “feel good” chemical) and other neurotransmitters that boost mood.

Adenosine is most present in your body at the end of the day. That’s because adenosine concentration is highest when you’re awake and increases the longer you’re awake. This can explain why you feel sleepier as the day wears on and are groggy when you wake up after a night of sleep.

Caffeine: The Adenosine Bully

Caffeine is like a bully to adenosine in the brain. Here’s how:

  • Caffeine’s chemical structure is very similar to adenosine, so it can compete with it and block it from binding to A1 receptors. This promotes wakefulness instead of sleepiness and prevents us from getting as tired.
  • Caffeine also blocks the A2A receptor so adenosine can’t reach it as it normally would. By blocking the receptor, caffeine supports a release of “feel good” dopamine and “excitatory” glutamate.
  • At the same time, caffeine prevents the reabsorption of dopamine into your system, meaning it hangs out longer and makes us feel good longer.

So with this information in mind, let’s look at how this works in a typical day…

Caffeine Through the Workday

While we use caffeine for a variety of reasons, such as for increasing alertness, boosting workouts, making up for lost sleep, or studying for an exam, this example shows the effects of caffeine on the brain from one cup of coffee during a typical workday.

Waking Up: Caffeine Consumption Begins

Through the night, your body has metabolized adenosine, and after you wake up and shake off the grogginess, you become more alert.

You walk to the kitchen and make a cup of coffee, which your small intestines absorbs in the next hour. It’s now usable by your body and brain.

As the caffeine reaches your brain, its molecules start competing with adenosine and blocking it from binding to receptors.

Mid-Morning: Caffeine Peaks

A couple hours after consuming the caffeine, your blood concentration of caffeine is at its highest. Adenosine is still blocked from reaching and binding to A1 and A2A receptors, and you feel most alert and “good” now. Great time to be productive!

Late Afternoon/Early Evening: When Caffeine Lays Off

As the day wears on, caffeine “gets tired” of blocking adenosine receptors and gets metabolized more. You might notice yourself feeling more tired or sleepy as the end of the workday gets closer.

Since most of the caffeine molecules aren’t in the way anymore, adenosine is able to bind to the receptors again. This makes you start feeling sleepy and relaxed.

Assuming you had the coffee in the morning, most of it is gone by early evening.

At night, as you get into bed to sleep, your resting body goes into recovery mode, metabolizing the adenosine molecules.

Rinse and repeat the next day.

Caffeine, whether it’s in the form of coffee, tea, chocolate, or energy drinks, is a handy tool to fight sleepiness and boost alertness during the day throughout the day. We developed our CCL Caffeine as a healthy source of caffeine (that you inhale!) without any crash or added sugars. Learn more about it here.

 

Sources:
1. https://www1.villanova.edu/villanova/studentlife/health/promotion/goto/resources/drugs/caffeine.html

Most of us are (at least slightly) familiar with the benefits of vitamin D, but there’s another missing link  preventing us big time from maintaining optimal health: vitamin K2.

To help you understand the delicate tango vitamin D and vitamin K2 must perform to keep us thriving, let’s do a quick overview of each and then talk about why they’re a powerhouse together.

Vitamin D3: Healthy Bones and More

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays many roles in the body, the most well-known being bone health.

Benefits of Vitamin D3

Vitamin D takes both calcium and phosphorus—essential nutrients for developing bones—and absorbs them into your body to maintain healthy bones.

Besides that, we now know Vitamin D also plays a part in many functions of the body, including:

  • Proper muscle function
  • Regulating immune function
  • Lowering blood pressure
  • Maintaining healthy lungs, brain function, and brain health
  • Supporting a balanced mood

A deficiency in vitamin D has been linked to type II diabetes, depression, high blood pressure, Alzheimer’s, and some autoimmune diseases. A study from the University of California-San Diego School of Medicine in 2014 even showed those with low levels of vitamin D are twice as likely to die prematurely as people with higher levels of vitamin D.

Your body can make its own vitamin D from sunlight, and you can also get it in small amounts in vitamin D foods like wild-caught fish, egg yolks, and mushrooms, or in supplemental form.

Although soaking up sunlight might seem like the most efficient way to get vitamin D, the problem is that during certain times of year, especially October through May, the sun isn’t strong enough in many parts of the U.S. for your body to make sufficient vitamin D.

At the same time, most of the sunscreens we use block almost all of the UVB rays needed to make vitamin D. This makes supplementation the best choice for many people.

Why Vitamin D3 is Better than D2

Did you know there are different forms of vitamin D?

Many supplements use vitamin D2, or calciferol, as their source. The problem is that this form comes from irradiated fungus and is not the same type of vitamin D your body makes naturally.

Vitamin D3, or cholecalciferol, is the natural type your body makes from sunlight. It’s the best form of vitamin D and was found to be twice as effective at raising vitamin D levels than vitamin D2 [1].

Vitamin K2: Healthy Bones, Arteries, and More

While vitamin D is more widely recognized for its supplemental benefits, vitamin K2 is a largely underrated vitamin, but it’s finally starting to get the attention it deserves. And it’s important to know about to understand the benefits it provides with vitamin D3.

Vitamin K is fat soluble and best known traditionally for its necessary role in helping blood clot properly. It was first discovered in 1929 by the scientist Henrik Dam and reported in the German scientific journal by the name “Koagulations vitamin,” which is where the “K” comes from [2].

The Different Forms of Vitamin K: K1 vs K2 vs K3

K2 is just one of three different forms of vitamin K, and it’s good to know the differences when looking at which vitamin K supplement is best:

  • Vitamin K1 (also known as phylloquinone) is found naturally in some vegetables, especially leafy greens and vegetable oils, but only a small amount of this form is actually absorbed and used by the body.
  • Vitamin K2 (also known as menaquinone) is found in both natural sources like fermented foods (created by bacteria during fermentation) like natto and cheese and it’s the most common (and best) form of vitamin K used in supplements.
  • Vitamin K3 (also known as menadione) is a synthetic form of vitamin K used in some supplements. We’re often injected with this form of vitamin K when we’re born.

Vitamin K2 has an advantage over K1 because it is likely absorbed better than K1, which is poorly absorbed from its plant food sources [3,4]. It’s best to increase your levels of both K1 and K2.

Benefits of Vitamin K2

Vitamin K is necessary for many reasons, including the following benefits.

Keeps Blood Clotting Normally

Vitamin K helps our blood clot properly. Without blood clotting, we would bleed to death every time we cut or scraped ourselves!

Protects Our Bones

Vitamin K2 helps active osteocalcin, the protein crucial for calcium deposition in our bones that maintains healthy bone density and reduces the chance of fractures. Vitamin K may be able to stop bone loss and reduce fractures in people with osteoporosis as well as possibly reverse it [5].

Supports the Heart

Research suggests an association between higher vitamin K2 intake and a lower risk of coronary calcification, when plague develops on the lining of heart arteries, which can cause strokes, heart disease, and circulatory diseases [6].

There is also some research showing vitamin K2 might help lower cholesterol in those with high levels.

May Reduce Cancer Risk

Some population research even suggests more vitamin K2 intake is linked to a lower risk of prostate, breast, liver, and lung cancers [7,8,9].

Brain Health

In a 2008 study looking at the diets of early-stage Alzheimer’s patients found the Alzheimer’s patients had consumed lower levels of vitamin K than the control group [10].

Vitamin K may also help with:

  • Wound healing
  • Varicose or spider veins
  • Scars, swelling, and stretch marks

Vitamin D3 and K2: Better Together

While both vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 are crucial for health and have many benefits separately, they are both necessary for how they work together.

Vitamin D3 and K2 Benefits

Healthy bones need both vitamin D and K2. While vitamin D is needed for calcium to be absorbed, vitamin K2’s job is to make sure that calcium actually ends up in the bones. Without this special combination, excess calcium might not be utilized correctly and can actually cause harm.

Both vitamins D3 and K2 also make and activate something called matrix GLA protein, or MGP. This protein:

  • Is found around the elastic fibers of the lining of the arteries
  • Helps protect the arteries from calcification and slow its progression

This is possible with the combination of vitamin D and vitamin K2 together and far more effective than vitamin D alone [11].

In addition, most of the benefits of vitamin D and K2 mentioned in this article are made possible when there’s a proper balance of both vitamins in your body.

What this all comes down to is: Vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 work synergistically in the body. So taking too much of one can lead to an imbalance in the other.

If you’re considering or already supplementing with vitamin D or vitamin K2 alone, it’s time to think about taking them together for maximum benefit and proper function.

Advanced D-K Spray makes it simple to get your daily dose of vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 benefits without worrying about an imbalance or deficiency. Check it out today:

 

Sources:

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21310306
  2. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-1789-8_19
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8813897
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23590754
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15802772
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15514282
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12888897?dopt=Abstract
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17982189
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19214667
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19027415
  11. https://academic.oup.com/ndt/article/28/suppl_1/i352/1838602

Having a vitamin B12 deficiency can be dangerous and even deadly. More importantly, you might be low in this essential vitamin and not realize it.
How common is vitamin B12 deficiency? According to the National Institutes of Health, anywhere between 1.5 and 15 percent of Americans are currently diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency [1]. However, this doesn’t take into account those who may not know their symptoms are related to a B12 deficiency, which can show up in different ways.
This article will look at what vitamin B12 is and why it’s necessary for the body, and the top signs of a vitamin B12 deficiency, and how to make sure you get enough vitamin B12.

What is Vitamin B12 and What Does It Do in the Body?

Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin (meaning it can dissolve in water) crucial for many roles in the body, including:
  • Cell metabolism
  • Red blood cell creation
  • DNA production
  • Nerve function
  • Fatty acid synthesis
  • Energy production
Vitamin B12 has several scientific names, including cyanocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and cobalamin.

What Happens When There’s Not Enough B12?

Problems develop when the body doesn’t get or absorb enough vitamin B12.
Some people are just not able to absorb vitamin B12 efficiently. The chance of this increases the older you get.
According to a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, an estimated 3.2% of adults above the age of 50 have seriously low levels of B12, while up to 20% might have a borderline deficiency. In addition, about 20% of elderly people have been found to have a vitamin B12 deficiency [2].
Our bodies are able to store vitamin B12 for around two to four years on average [3], but not forever, so just because your body contained plenty of vitamin B12 a few years ago doesn’t mean it can’t be deficient now.
According to WebMD, other risk factors (besides getting older) for vitamin B12 deficiency include:
  • Heavy drinking and alcoholism
  • A past of weight loss surgery
  • Any operation that removed part of the stomach
  • Any conditions that affect the small intestine, including celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, parasites, bacterial growth, or gastritis [4]
  • Taking stomach acid-reducing medications like Prevacid or Prilosec
  • Pernicious anemia, an autoimmune condition that makes it hard for the stomach to absorb vitamin B12
  • Atrophic gastritis (inflammation and thinning of the stomach lining)
  • Immune system disorders like lupus or Graves’ disease
  • Eating a vegan diet, which is devoid of all animal products, or a vegetarian diet with little intake of eggs or dairy
Other medications that may reduce absorption of vitamin B12 include Metformin, Colchicine, and Aminosalicylic acid. Taking vitamin C with a vitamin B12 supplement can also decrease the amount of B12 absorbed by the body.
The truth is, no one is immune to the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. If you stop consuming enough B12 in your diet or become unable to absorb it properly for whatever reason, your stores may deplete faster than you realize.
Taking the right vitamin B12 supplement [link to CCL product] is a good way to insure yourself, as we’ll discuss more below. First, let’s cover some common symptoms that can indicate B12 deficiency.

Top 10 Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Sometimes vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms can start gradually and get worse over time, while others may appear pretty quickly. Deficiency can show up differently depending on the person, but below are some of the most common signs something is up.

1. Being Overly Tired or Fatigued

Fatigue is one of the first signs of B12 deficiency. In other words, you’re always tired, even if you get a good night’s sleep or plenty of rest.
Your body needs vitamin B12 to make red blood cells and carry oxygen to your cells. When not enough B12 is present, it can result in tiredness and fatigue no matter what you do.

2. Feeling Weaker than Usual

When there’s a lack of red blood cells bringing oxygen to your muscles, you can experience an unusual lack of strength. Muscle weakness and feeling sluggish are common signs of deficiency.

3. Being Anemic

Anemia, which is caused by a lack of red blood cells in the body, is the most common blood disorder, affecting 24.8 percent of the world’s population [5].
Symptoms of anemia can include:
  • Chest pain
  • Headaches
  • Low energy and fatigue
  • Shortness or breath
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Pale or yellowing skin
Millions of red blood cells are made by the body every minute. Without vitamin B12, these cells can’t multiply as needed for healthy function. If vitamin B12 levels are too low, production of red blood cells drops, which can cause anemia [6].

4. “Pins and Needles” Feeling or Numbness

Think about how your skin goes numb and then tingles if your foot or arm fall asleep. Having that sensation, known as peripheral neuropathy, for seemingly no reason is a more severe sign of vitamin B12 deficiency caused by damage to the myelin sheath surrounding and protecting our nerves.
According to the Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy, even a mild B12 deficiency can affect the nervous system and brain function. If untreated, this damage can become permanent.

5. Problems with Memory and Brain Fog

We all forget small details, lose our keys, and feeling confused sometimes—but issues with memory, reasoning, and brain fog happen often or seem severe, it may be a sign of B12 deficiency.
In older adults, these B12 deficiency symptoms have even been mistaken for aging-related diseases like dementia.

6. Unusually Pale or Yellow Skin

Lack of B12 can make red blood cells fragile and easily broken down. This releases bilirubin, a pigment that gives the skin a yellow hue, causing jaundice of the skin.

7. Dizziness or Coordination Issues

Being dizzy for having trouble walking is another possible symptom of B12 deficiency.
A study in Turkey comparing B12 levels of people suffering from dizziness with 100 healthy people found the dizzy patients to have 40% less B12 in their systems [7].

8. Struggling with Emotions and Mood Disturbances

Vitamin B12 is involved in synthesizing brain chemicals related to mood, including dopamine and serotonin. This could be one reason why a lack of B12 can cause problems with mood like anxiety or depression [8].
It is believed a deficiency of vitamin B12 may even increase the risk of cognitive impairment later in life [9].

9. Blurry or Double Vision

Extreme B12 deficiencies can clog blood vessels in the retinas of the eye or damage the optic nerve, leading to double or blurry vision, light sensitivity, or even loss of sight.

10. A Smooth, Red, Swollen Tongue

Glossitis is a condition where the tongue can become swollen, smooth, and red. Glossitis may be an early clinical sign of B12 deficiency [10]. It may lead food to not taste as good and cause soreness, itchy or a burning feeling on the tongue.

How to Prevent Vitamin B12 Deficiency

The best way to prevent a deficiency of B12 is by ensuring you take and absorb it properly and regularly. The following sections will cover sources of vitamin B12 and how to supplement.

How Much Vitamin B12 Do You Need?

For the average adult or teen, 2.4 microgram (mcg) of vitamin B12 per day is recommended.
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding may need higher levels, around 2.6 mcg and 2.8 mcg per day, respectively.
For children, recommended doses are as follows:
  • Six months old or younger: 0.4 mcg
  • 7-12 months old: 0.5 mcg
  • 1-3 years old: 0.9 mcg
  • 4-8 years old: 1.2 mcg
  • 9-13 years old: 1.8 mcg
Taking higher doses than recommended amount is generally safe and not considered toxic [11]. The body only uses what it needs and passes the rest through your urine.
While only a blood test can truly tell you whether or not you’re deficient in B12, those mentioned above are some of the most common signs. If you experience any of them, you may be at risk.

How and Where to Get Vitamin B12

Without vitamin B12 in our bodies, we would die. And even though it’s so crucial for health and life, our bodies don’t make vitamin B12 themselves—we must get it from food or supplements.

Food Sources of Vitamin B12

In food, vitamin B12 is only found naturally in animal-based foods like meat, dairy, and eggs. This comes from the animals eating B12. Some plant-based food sources are fortified with B12.

When Getting B12 From Food Isn’t Enough

Although animal foods contain B12, that doesn’t guarantee we’ll get enough or properly absorb it from eating them.
Some people simply don’t absorb B12 well from food, even if they eat sources of them daily. Other people who eat a more restrictive diet, such as vegans, may be lacking in proper dietary sources of B12.
In any case, supplementation should be considered. Even if you don’t have a vitamin B12 deficiency or suspect an absorption problem, supplenting is a good way to cover your bases and prevent future problems.

How to Treat Vitamin B12 Deficiency Naturally

There are several ways when it comes to vitamin B12 supplementation:
  • Vitamin b12 patches
  • Capsules
  • Vitamin b12 liquid
  • Lozenges
  • Fortified foods
  • Multivitamins
  • Injections
  • Sprays
It’s important to note that the body’s ability to absorb vitamin B12 is limited by something call intrinsic factor. In healthy people, only about 10 mcg is absorbed from a 500 mcg oral supplement [12]. This is a problem for supplement options like multivitamin and fortified foods, where the other vitamins and minerals present may interfere with absorption further.
B12 injections are typically the go-to for severe cases of vitamin B12. Unfortunately, regular injections can be expensive and ongoing.
Vitamin B12 sprays are arguably the most effective way to get a large dose of B12 safely and efficiently, increasing the chance of absorbing the maximum amount. CCL Advanced Vitamin B12 Spray was developed for this exact reason. Grab a bottle for yourself here.

 

 

Sources:

  1. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15289425/
  3. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamin-b12-or-folate-deficiency-anaemia/causes/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5065578/
  5. http://www.who.int/vmnis/anaemia/prevalence/summary/anaemia_data_status_t2/en/
  6. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/hematology_and_blood_disorders/anemia_of_b12_deficiency_pernicious_anemia_85,P00080
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22770256
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25644193
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12918012
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19231648/
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK114310/
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18606874?dopt=Abstract

Caffeine has been used by humans for a long, long time, and it’s currently the most widely used substance on the earth! In fact, most people enjoy it first thing in the morning in their cup of coffee. There are many different uses of caffeine, and many pros of using it regularly.

When caffeine is consumed in a healthy way, there are many possible benefits it can have for us. Here are some of the biggest ones:

#1 Memory Booster

There’s a reason caffeine is so popular among college students and busy people!

Research has shown it helps enhance memory, especially up to 24 hours after it’s consumed. Plus, consuming caffeine post-studying may help enhance long-term memory consolidation [1].

#2 Assist Athletic Performance

Caffeine can increase blood levels of adrenaline, the “fight or flight” hormone that gets our bodies ready for physical performance. It also helps break down body fat to be available as energy [2].

Plus, caffeine combined with carbohydrates may also help increase muscle glycogen, which is important for energy, performance, and better recovery. A study in Journal of Applied Physiology found athletes had 66% more muscle glycogen after consuming carbs and caffeine together post-strenuous workout than other athletes who only consumed carbs [3].

Here is some more evidence for the benefits of caffeine on athletic performance. Check it out:

  • Caffeine has been found to increase muscle activity and torque (rotation) during strength training [4]. In addition, a Spanish study showed athletes who consumed caffeine burned 15% more calories for three hours post-exercise than those taking a placebo.
  • In a systematic review of 29 studies on athletic performance and caffeine, 6 out of 11 studies showed caffeine benefits during resistance training and 11 out of 17 studies showed exceptional exercise performance enhancements from taking caffeine [5].
  • Caffeine has been shown to increase enjoyment from exercise plus lead to less consumption of calories after exercise and burning of more calories during it [6].
  • Drinking 2-3 cups’ worth of caffeine one hour pre-workout may help reduce perceived muscle pain, according to University of Illinois scientists.

These are some of the reasons why many athletes and gym-goers will turn to pre-workouts or other quick sources of caffeine to fuel and improve recovery after their exercise—whether it’s cardio, weight lifting, or any other physical activity.

#3 Increases Alertness

Caffeinated coffee has a very beneficial effect on task performance and alertness during the day and night [7].

Caffeine easily enters the bloodstream and travels to the brain to enhance the firing of neurons, block adenosine (a neurotransmitter that makes us tired), and increase concentration and mental focus.

This is why it’s popular with college students, working adults, athletes, and anyone else who needs to improve their alertness at any time.

Best of all, it’s a natural stimulant that’s easily accessible to everyone!

#4 Supports the Brain

A thriving brain is so important for living a long, healthy life.

When it comes to caffeinated coffee and the brain, there’s good news:

  • Some research shows coffee may decrease the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease, even in those who are more genetically inclined to develop it [8].
  • Also, research pulled together at Harvard showed 4-5 cups of coffee per day halved the risk of Parkinson’s disease [9].
  • A moderate level of caffeine consumption also showed reversed memory impairment in mice with Alzheimer’s [10].

#5 Helps the Sleep Deprived

Although it’s best to aim for a full night’s sleep, sometimes that’s not always possible. Caffeine can be a great backup for those nights when sleep doesn’t come so easily.

A study done on soldiers at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research showed caffeine was helpful for maintaining cognitive function, speeding up reaction time, and improving logical reasoning when getting enough sleep is not possible [11].

#6 Cures Headaches

Combining 200 mg caffeine with a painkiller has been shown to effectively cure a headache [12]. But that’s not all: caffeine alone can be helpful as a headache cure too.

Caffeine causes constriction of blood vessels that can relieve headache pain. In fact, it’s the reason many painkillers contain caffeine: it makes them 40% more effective!

#7 Fat Burner

Most fat burning supplements contain caffeine, and that’s for a reason: caffeine acts as a natural fat burning aid!

Research has shown caffeine can boost fat burning as much as 29% in lean individuals and 10% in obese people. It may also boost our metabolic rates by 3-11% [13].

#8 May Lower Diabetes Risk

A 2014 study at Harvard showed those who consumed more coffee over four years had an 11% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who didn’t increase their coffee drinking.

Other research has shown those who drink the highest amounts of coffee have an even lower risk. In fact, a review of 18 studies totalling over 450,000 people showed a 7% reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with each daily cup of coffee [14].

#9 Fights Depression

A large Harvard study showed depression risk decreased by 20% for women drinking four or more cups of caffeinated coffee per day [15]. Other small studies in Finland and the United States have shown strong inverse relationships between suicide risk and coffee consumption.

How to Choose the Right Type of Caffeine

When it comes to reaping the benefits of caffeine, the source and dose matters. Some caffeine forms, such as caffeine pills, come with extremely high doses that are harmful or not as effective. Always make sure you are ingesting a safe amount of caffeine yet still getting enough

Our CCL Caffeine inhaler is revolutionizing the way people can safely benefit from caffeine. CCL Caffeine is:

  • Super convenient: Easy to take with you anywhere and use at any time. It fits perfectly in a purse, pocket, or gym bag!
  • Small dose, big benefit: Unlike other options, our caffeine inhaler actually requires very little caffeine to get the desired effects. This means you avoid any unwanted side effects of caffeine while benefitting from the perfect amount.
  • Feel it instantly: You’ll notice the boost right away (versus having to wait 30 minutes or more to feel it). Plus, it wears off in around an hour, making it easy to control the effects as needed. Other types of caffeine stay in your system too long, often leading to jitters or sleep loss.
  • Use at any time: CCL Caffeine is perfect for studying, working on something important, late-night driving, and more. Use it any time you really need the boost.
  • The healthy alternative: Energy drinks, sodas, and even coffee have downsides. You get high amounts of sugar or other junk along with the caffeine, detracting from its effects and negatively impacting health. Our caffeine inhaler gives you only the good stuff without the bad!

Caffeine has many benefits if it’s used correctly. Try on Amazon here: CCL Caffeine , or you can buy it from our store to earn reward points! Discover the new way to use caffeine smartly and efficiently!

Sources:

1. https://www.nature.com/articles/nn.3623
2. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0026049568900541
3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18467543
4. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mus.24179/abstract
5. http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2010/01000/Efficacy_of_Acute_Caffeine_Ingestion_for.38.aspx
6. http://jap.physiology.org/content/117/7/745
7. https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/118984
8. http://www.nature.com/articles/srep15492
9. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/hsph-in-the-news/drink-up-health-benefits-of-coffee-are-numerous/
10. https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-07/uosf-crm070109.php
11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25527035
12. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD011509.pub2/abstract
13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2912010
14. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/773949
15. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/1105943